Quarries, Mills, and Factories

Paper Mills, Bellows Falls; Windsor Machine Co., Windsor; J. Estey & Company's Cottage Organ Works, Brattleboro The industrial sector of Vermontís economy continued to grow rapidly along with the expansion of the railroad in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. The largest industries developed natural resources such as marble, granite, slate, and timber for expanding markets outside of Vermontís borders. The number of textile mills declined, but the ones that survived, like those in Winooski, grew large enough to compete with other northeastern mills. The machine-tool industry that originated in Windsor moved to Springfield and continued a history of building on the ideas of a skilled inventive work force. St. Johnsbury became a company town based upon the entrepreneurship and political savvy of the Fairbanks family, who turned their platform scale industry into a dynasty. Brattleboro was famous for its music organs, Bellows Falls for the paper mill, and St. Albans and Island Pond grew as railroad centers. A successful industry led to an expanding work force. People lived in the same place where they
worked and new communities sprang
up around the quarries, mills, and
factories. Cities grew as rural villages
lost population.

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